The largest mass deaths of Afro-Argentines were during Domingo F. Sarmiento's term as President of Argentina from 1868 to 1874: the Paraguayan War of 1865–1870 and the 1871 Buenos Aires yellow fever epidemic. After the abolition of slavery, Afro-Argentines lived in miserable conditions and faced widespread discrimination. The fourteen schools in Buenos Aires in 1857, only admitted two black children, although 15% of students that year were of color. In Córdoba in 1829 Afro-Argentine children were only entitled to two years' secondary schooling, while white Argentine children studied for four years. Universities did not admit blacks until 1853. Decline of the Afro-Argentine population The bloody War of Paraguay (1865–70) and the Yellow Fever epidemic have been considered causes of the drastic diminution of the Afro-Argentine population. Causes of reduction Heavy casualties caused by constant civil wars and foreign wars: Blacks formed a disproportionate part of the Argentine army in the long and bloody War of Paraguay (1865–1870), in which the loss of lives on both sides were high. Genocide. The rapid disappearance of blacks from Argentina has been attributed to racial genocide on the part of the Argentine government. Argentine President Domingo Sarmiento is noted for claiming that blacks can have no part in Argentine society The Argentine government was known to have carried out similar ethnic cleansing of the countries Native American population. Historians that criticize claims of black casualties in the civil wars often cite the fact that women did not fight in the Argentine wars, yet black women disappeared simultaneously with men in Argentina. Epidemics, especially of yellow fever in 1871: the traditional history holds that the epidemics had greater impact in areas where the poorest people lived. Emigration. Large numbers of Afro-Argentines emigrated particularly to Uruguay and Brazil, where black populations had historically been larger and had a more favorable political climate; Massive immigration from Europe between 1880 and 1950, boosted by the Constitution of 1853, that quickly multiplied the country's population. Like Australia in the 1950s to 1980s, European immigrants were encouraged while non-Europeans were virtually excluded. All children born after 1813 were automatically free, but Afro-Argentines who were already slaves were not freed, and were only granted their freedom as a condition of fighting in Argentina's wars. For this reason, African males had disproportionate numbers in the Argentine war of independence from Spain. A much larger proportion of men of African descent were killed in the war than men of Spanish descent. An Afro-Argentine had less chance of survival if free than if enslaved: slaves were seen as investments and taken good care of, while free Afro-Argentines were left with menial jobs for low pay, or forced to become beggars. This caused much poverty in the Afro-Argentine community; many succumbed to disease because they could not afford proper medical care, in many cases during frequent plagues of diseases such as yellow fever.