The Combat and Military Systems of Africa and its Diaspora

Discussion in 'The Root' started by MansaMusa, Mar 12, 2017.

  1. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    This is a thread that I've wanted to make for a long time. In this thread, we will be analyzing pre-colonial, colonial era and post-colonial combat and military systems of African peoples. It'll be a mix of history, contemporary analysis and discussion/debate. I'll be posting the first few major submission for this thread shortly.

    Also, people should feel free to contribute stuff to this thread. Just so long as they can back up their claims with evidence.
     
  2. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    The Benin Empire: Fortresses, Siege Warfare and More
    • Inhabiting the forest west of the Niger River and east of the Yoruba states, in what is now southern Nigeria, the Edo-speakers developed a viable agro-economy and had formed a state focusing on Benin City around 900 CE. Benin was actively involved in the Trans-Saharan trade to acquire sat and copper. Town-based merchants and artisans emerged.
    • Around 1200, the people of Benin City overthrew their monarch and established a new dynasty with a family from the Yoruba city of Ife. In 1250, Oba (King) Ewedo centralized power by restricting the potency of nobles (for instance they couldn't use royal items like swords . in the Oba's presence). He also separated the town from the palace and created a hiearchy of royal officials (a bureaucracy!). To increase his military power, he began to import horses, implemented ntew types of swords and bows and a more effective military organization.
    • After winning a civil war that saw Benin City burned, Oba Ewuare came to power in the 1440s and reformed the political system by incorporating town chiefs into the central government and appointing them on the basis of merit. The army was under his direct command and assisted by a mix of appointed and hereditary military chiefs.
    • The nucleus of the army was permanent forces in the capital city and royal palace - including a unit dedicated to the Queen Mother - and units raised by other towns and villages.
    • Fighting with spears and bows, these infantry forces were aided logistically by porters and canoes especially in the Niger Delta and Lagos Lagoon. Ewuare expanded Benin's earthwork fortifications and network of roads. He is remembered for conquering 201 towns and villages and expanding Benin to include Igbo groups on the west bank of the Niger River and one of his sons was sent south to create a new vassal state of Itsekiri near the coast.
    • Ozolua, one of his sons, came to power in the 1480s and quickly put down a rebellion. He was even more aggressive than his father. He won 200 battles and installed his sons as rulers of neighbouring states. He defeated the Yoruba state of Ijebu which extended Benin's power as far west as the Lagos Lagoon. He also starved the town of Uromi into submission during a three month siege - but his war-weary soldiers poisoned him.
    • Ozulua is called 'Ozolua the Conqueror' and Ewuare is called 'Ewuare the Great'
     
  3. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    Expansion of Benin
    [​IMG]

    The Oba meeting the Portuguese (note the Oba's guns)
    [​IMG]
     
  4. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    [​IMG]
    - Soldiers of the Benin Empire. Note their use of guns, swords and specialized clothing which was likely used to differentiate between rank and regiment origin
     
  5. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    The Benin Empire: Early Interactions with Europeans and Firearms

    • In 1487, the Portuguese established a fort at Ughoton on the Niger River and began trading with Benin, which exported ivory, palm oil, pepper and slaves for cloth and salt. Products of Benin's many wars, the slaves, were sent to Akan (in modern day Ghana) to trade for gold and to Sao Tome and Principe to work on Portuguese sugar plantations.
    • In 1514, Benin senta delegation to the Portuguese to ask for guns. But the Benin Empire rejected Christianity and the export of male slaves so the Portuguese said no. Guns were nonetheless smuggled into the Empire.
    • In the 1600s, succession disputes caused the Obas to lose power to royal officials. Around 1600, the Oba was forbidden from going on military expeditions - which were now commanded by the Iyase (the head of town chiefs). Other specialized positions such as the head of Intelligence were created by the town chiefs.
    • Trade patterns also changed too as exports went from slaves and ivory to cloth made at the village level (very fascinating!). These factors led to a long civil war between 1689 to 1721 between royalists and supporters of the town chiefs. Not unlike England or France. The Royalists won and Benin became less centrally governed. The military command structure was reduced to limit the Iyase's authority. The Civil War also led Benin to weaken and constantly be on the war-footing against rebels and re-asserting its claims in what is now Western Nigeria around the Lagos Lagoon.
    • During the Civil War, more guns were imported. These weapons secured a Royalist triumph. Benin did try to make its own guns (according to oral tradition) but we lack evidence for it.
     
  6. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    The Benin Empire: Its Defeat
    • Benin did not suffer that much from the end of the slave trade. It shifted away from that economy early on. It also didn't do much to spur trade in selling palm oil to European firms. As such, it retreated into splendid isolation. In doing so, it incurred the wrath of the British.
    • In 1897, the Benin Empire, which had rejected several British treaty offers and massacred a British diplomatic mission, was invaded by 1200 marines, sailors and members of the Niger Coast Protectorate Forces. Their artillery was turned against Benin's mighty walls In other lands such as Tibet, Zululand and the Sokoto Caliphate - colonial officials on the ground created crises in order to justify the destruction of African states. The expedition looted and burned Benin City, its rich artwork and the Oba Ovonranwen was captured and exiled to Calabar.
    A sketch of Benin City
    [​IMG]

    The last Oba before the British conquest
    [​IMG]


    A moat between the inner and outer remnant walls of Benin
    [​IMG]
     
  7. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    Somalia: Al Shabaab seizes army base in southern Somalia
     
    EastCoastNaga and Thomas dapped this.
  8. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    Analysis on the Anglophone Crisis in Cameroon:
    Part 1 - How to Create an Insurgency: The Southern Camerouns Anglophone Crisis

     
    Thomas dapped this.
  9. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    Part 2 -
     
    Thomas dapped this.
  10. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    Part 3 -
     
  11. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    Part 4/Conclusion -
     
    Dip and KidStranglehold dapped this.
  12. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    Lecture on African Martial Arts like Capoeira, Knocking and Kicking etc.
     
  13. Dip

    Dip diver, civilize you 85ers

    Joined:
    Dec 5, 2012
    Messages:
    25,544
    Daps Received:
    61,914
    Reputation:
    4,110
    Coli Cash:
    $344900.00

    Subs
     
    MansaMusa dapped this.
  14. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    AFRICOM: America's Empire of Military Bases in Africa | Black Agenda Report Part I
     
    Skooby and Dip dapped this.
  15. The Odum of Ala Igbo

    The Odum of Ala Igbo Hail Biafra!

    Joined:
    Jan 16, 2014
    Messages:
    15,235
    Daps Received:
    44,721
    Reppin:
    Ontarioooooo
    Reputation:
    2,880
    Coli Cash:
    $300500.00

    Part II
     
    Dip dapped this.

Share This Page

  1. This site uses cookies to help personalise content, tailor your experience and to keep you logged in if you register.
    By continuing to use this site, you are consenting to our use of cookies.
    Dismiss Notice